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The Kingdom of Bavaria existed from to , when Bavaria became a republic. Bavaria has a unique culture, largely because of the state's Catholic majority and conservative traditions.
Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia and Swabia. The Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps , previously inhabited by Celts , which had been part of the Roman provinces of Raetia and Noricum.
The Bavarians spoke Old High German , but, unlike other Germanic groups, they probably did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by the Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century.
They first appear in written sources circa Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in Their daughter, Theodelinde , became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords.
Garibald's successor, Tassilo I , tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs and Avars around Tassilo's son Garibald II seems to have achieved a balance of power between and From onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy it is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time.
His son, Theudebert , led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom in , and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand.
At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hugbert. At Hugbert's death the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo , from neighboring Alemannia modern southwest Germany and northern Switzerland.
Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria , completed the process of church organization in partnership with St. Boniface , and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo.
He was defeated near Augsburg in but continued to rule until his death in He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from onwards.
He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands.
After , however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in The deposition was not entirely legitimate.
The king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources, and he probably died a monk.
As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty. For the next years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations.
With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome in , Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east. The territory of Ostarrichi was elevated to a duchy in its own right and given to the Babenberger family.
This event marks the founding of Austria. The last, and one of the most important, of the dukes of Bavaria was Henry the Lion of the house of Welf , founder of Munich, and de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies.
They ruled for years, from to The Electorate of the Palatinate by Rhine Kurpfalz in German was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach in , which they would subsequently hold for six centuries.
The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in , Swabian territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes.
In the 14th and 15th centuries, upper and lower Bavaria were repeatedly subdivided. Four Duchies existed after the division of In with the Landshut War of Succession , the other parts of Bavaria were reunited, and Munich became the sole capital.
In the Bavarian duke replaced his relative of the Palatinate branch, the Electorate of the Palatinate in the early days of the Thirty Years' War and acquired the powerful prince-electoral dignity in the Holy Roman Empire , determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws.
The country became one of the Jesuit-supported counter-reformation centers. During the early and midth century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria War of the Spanish Succession , election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger.
From onwards and after the younger Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph , Bavaria and the Electorate of the Palatinate were governed once again in personal union , now by the Palatinian lines.
The new state also comprised the Duchies of Jülich and Berg as these on their part were in personal union with the Palatinate.
The Duchy of Berg was given to Jerome Bonaparte. In return Bavaria was allowed to annex the modern-day region of Palatinate to the west of the Rhine and Franconia in Between and , the leading minister, Count Montgelas , followed a strict policy of modernisation; he laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived the monarchy and retain core validity in the 21st century.
In May a first constitution was passed by Maximilian I ,  being modernized in That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I.
After the rise of Prussia to power, Bavaria preserved its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria. Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War and did not belong to the North German Federation of , but the question of German unity was still alive.
Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it had some special rights within the federation such as an army, railways, postal service and a diplomatic body of its own.
When Bavaria became part of the newly formed German Empire, this action was considered controversial by Bavarian nationalists who had wanted to retain independence, as Austria had.
As Bavaria had a majority-Catholic population, many people resented being ruled by the mostly Protestant northerners of Prussia.
As a direct result of the Bavarian-Prussian feud, political parties formed to encourage Bavaria to break away and regain its independence.
In the early 20th century, Wassily Kandinsky , Paul Klee , Henrik Ibsen , and other artists were drawn to Bavaria, especially to the Schwabing district of Munich, a center of international artistic activity.
This area was devastated by bombing and invasion during World War II. Free State has been an adopted designation after the abolition of monarchy in the aftermath of World War I in several German states.
On 12 November , Ludwig III signed a document, the Anif declaration , releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly formed republican government , or "People's State" of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner ,  interpreted this as an abdication.
To date, however, no member of the House of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, Franz, Duke of Bavaria.
They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by Franz's presence or absence.
Eisner was assassinated in February , ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic being proclaimed 6 April The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Bavarian Parliament did not sign the Basic Law of Germany , mainly because it was seen as not granting sufficient powers to the individual Länder , but at the same time decided that it would still come into force in Bavaria if two-thirds of the other Länder ratified it.
All of the other Länder ratified it, and so it became law. Bavarians have often emphasized a separate national identity and considered themselves as "Bavarians" first, "Germans" second.
Nowadays, aside from the minority Bavaria Party , most Bavarians accept that Bavaria is part of Germany.
Franconia in the north, speaking East Franconian German ; Bavarian Swabia in the south west, speaking Swabian German ; and Altbayern so-called "Old Bavaria", the regions forming the "historic", pentagon-shaped Bavaria before the acquisitions through the Vienna Congress, at present the districts of the Upper Palatinate, Lower and Upper Bavaria speaking Austro-Bavarian.
In Munich, the Old Bavarian dialect was widely spread, but nowadays High German is predominantly spoken there.
Uniquely among German states, Bavaria has two official flags of equal status, one with a white and blue stripe, the other with white and blue lozenges.
Either may be used by civilians and government offices, who are free to choose between them. The modern coat of arms of Bavaria was designed by Eduard Ege in , following heraldic traditions.
Because all of these countries are part of the Schengen Area , the border is completely open. Two major rivers flow through the state: News in brief Seven Bayern players in Germany squad.
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Thank you for subscribing to the FC Bayern newsletter! Beside a state profile, this page offers links to sources that provide you with information about this "Bundesland", e.
Flag of the Free State of Bavaria. Free State of Bavaria Nick name: The Beer State Abbreviation: Sand and gravel, natural stone, clay, silica sand, kaolin.
Dairy products, cheese, meat and meat products, sugar, beer, hops. Car industry, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, foods, tourism.
The Free State of Bavaria in German: Freistaat Bayern comprises the entire southeast portion of Germany.
It is geographically the largest federal state in the country. Bayern shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic as well as with Switzerland across Lake of Constance.
The landscape of Bavaria consists of four major regions: Bavaria is divided in 7 administrative regions: External links will open in a new browser window.
Landtag von Bayern The official website of the parliament of Bavaria in German. Statistics Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung Bavarian state office for statistics.
Augsburger Allgemeine News from Augsburg. Bayerwald Echo News from the Regensburg region. Chiemgau Online Southeast Bavarian news.That constitution was followed until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I. The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate. Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Three early dukes are named in Frankish sources: Free video slot machine play capital and largest city, Munichis the third -largest city in Germany. Data provided by Opta Sports. Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas rocket league deutsch full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions. The Maibaumor Maypole which europameisterschaft island the Middle Ages served as the community's yellow pagesas figurettes on the pole represent the trades of the villageBeste Spielothek in Gaisberg finden the bagpipes in the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of bayern city region. All of the other Länder ratified it, and so it became law. Odilo issued Beste Spielothek in Kalsow finden law code for Bavariacompleted the process doubleu casino promo codes 2019 android church organization in partnership with St.
The choice of "Free State", a creation of the early 20th century and intended to be a German alternative to or translation of the Latin-derived "republic", has historical reasons, Bavaria having been styled that way even before the current Constitution was enacted in after the de facto abdication of Ludwig III.
Two other states, Saxony and Thuringia , also use the style "Free State"; unlike Bavaria, however, these were not part of the original states when the Grundgesetz was enacted but joined the federation later on, in , as a result of German reunification.
Saxony had used the designation as "Free State" from to In July , Bavaria's parliament enacted a new revision of the "Gefährdergesetz", allowing the authorities to imprison a person for a three months term, renewable indefinitely, when he or she has not committed a crime but it is assumed that he or she might commit a crime "in the near future".
Bavaria has long had one of the largest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter. Bavaria has a GDP per capita of over U.
Meaning that if it were its own independent country it would rank 7th or 8th in the world. Bavaria has a population of approximately All other cities in Bavaria had less than , inhabitants in Population density in Bavaria was per sq.
The state's population continues to decline . Some features of the Bavarian culture and mentality are remarkably distinct from the rest of Germany.
Noteworthy differences especially in rural areas, less significant in the major cities can be found with respect to religion, traditions, and language.
Bavarian culture Altbayern has a long and predominant tradition of Catholic faith. Otherwise, the culturally Franconian and Swabian regions of the modern State of Bavaria are historically more diverse in religiosity, with both Catholic and Protestant traditions.
As of [update] Bavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern Lederhosen for males and Dirndl for females.
Centuries-old folk music is performed. The Maibaum , or Maypole which in the Middle Ages served as the community's yellow pages , as figurettes on the pole represent the trades of the village , and the bagpipes in the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic remnants of cultural heritage of the region.
There are a lot of traditional Bavarian sports disciplines, e. Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions.
They hold festivals and dances to keep their traditions alive. In New York City the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others such as the Bavarian organizations, which represent a specific part of Germany.
They proudly put forth a German Parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers.
Bavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink. Bavarians are particularly proud [ citation needed ] of the traditional Reinheitsgebot , or beer purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria for the City of Munich i.
According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: In the Reinheitsgebot made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany until the EU partly struck it down in as incompatible with the European common market.
Bavaria is also home to the Franconia wine region , which is situated along the Main River in Franconia. The region has produced wine Frankenwein for over 1, years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel wine bottle.
The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals Weinfeste throughout the year.
Mainly three German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: In the small town Ludwigsstadt in the north, district Kronach in Upper Franconia, Thuringian dialect is spoken.
In the 20th century an increasing part of the population began to speak Standard German , mainly in the cities. Bavarians consider themselves to be egalitarian and informal.
In traditional Bavarian beer gardens, patrons may bring their own food but buy beer only from the brewery that runs the beer garden.
In the United States, particularly among German Americans , Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, and several "Bavarian villages" have been founded, most notably Frankenmuth, Michigan ; Helen, Georgia ; and Leavenworth, Washington.
Since , the latter has been styled with a Bavarian theme and is home to an Oktoberfest celebration it claims is among the most attended in the world outside of Munich.
Bavaria is home to several football clubs including FC Bayern Munich , 1. Bayern Munich is the most popular and successful football team in Germany having won a record 27 German titles.
They are followed by 1. FC Nürnberg who have won 9 titles. Fortress Marienberg and the Alte Mainbrücke in Würzburg. Plassenburg Castle in Kulmbach.
Basilica of the Vierzehnheiligen. Veste Coburg in Coburg. Festspielhaus of Richard Wagner in Bayreuth. Kastell Biriciana, Weissenburg close to the Limes.
Castle of Neuburg an der Donau. Old Stone Bridge and Cathedral of Regensburg. Walhalla temple in Donaustauf near Regensburg.
Bartholomew at the Königssee. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Bavaria disambiguation.
For other uses, see Bayern disambiguation. State of Germany in Germany. Flag of Bavaria and Coat of arms of Bavaria.
List of places in Bavaria. Religion in Bavaria — Religion Percent Catholics. Imperial Castle in Nuremberg. Nymphenburg Palace in Munich.
Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung in German. Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Archived from the original on 28 April Retrieved 31 August Unjust Seizure 1st ed.
The Early Medieval World: Early Medieval Europe, — Reordering Marriage and Society in Reformation Germany. Historical Dictionary of the French Revolution 2 ed.
One Europe, Many Nations: Flags of the World. You should have received an email with a "finish registration" link. Please check your spam folder.
Robert Lewandowski talked to FC Bayern. With the Reds back on track You can also stay completely up-to-date with news and developments at FC Bayern via social media platforms.
Puma High-end athletic shoes and sportswear. Audi Vorsprung durch Technik. Tourismusverband Ostbayern Tourism East Bavaria.
Official tourism site of Bayerischer Wald. Munich München Landeshauptstadt München, the state capital. Augsburg The city was laid to waste by the Huns in the fifth century, by Charlemagne in the eighth, and by Welf of Bavaria in the eleventh; it rose each time only to greater prosperity.
Fürth In , the first German railway was opened between Nuremberg and Fürth. Nürnberg Nuremberg Albrecht Dürer was born here.
Rothenburg ob der Tauber The city is known for its well-preserved medieval old town. Würzburg The university city on the Main River.
Travel and Tour Consumer Information. Universität Augsburg Augsburg, founded Naturpark Frankenhöhe The nature park is situated in the northeast of the famous city Rothenburg o.
Spessart Naturpark Spessart A nature reserve in the Spessart, a densely wooded hill chain in northwestern Bavaria and southern Hesse. Naturparke Deutschland A guide to nature and national parks in Germany.
Due to the political rebuild of Germany with new regional divisions, Bavaria lost the Rhenish Palatinate region to Rhineland-Palatinate in Bavarian history An overview and timeline of Bavaria's history from the state government's site.
History of Bavaria Bavaria's history from tillDer Ball knallt an den linken Pfosten! Wegen Beleidigung wurde er zu einer Geldstrafe in Höhe von Medienberichten zufolge arbeitet er in der von ihm gegründeten C. Diskutieren Casino thun über diesen Artikel. Ende Tipico fußball wetten wurde er entlassen. Der FC Bayern überzeugte mit gnadenloser Effizienz - so auch in der